Cosmology is the name of the branch of science that deals with the problems of the beginning and extent of the Universe (Cosmos). This is an ambitious subject indeed and there are conflicting schools of thought along these lines. The differences revolve around such concepts as whether the Universe is open or closed and whether it is static or expanding.

The beginning and extent of the Universe has long held mans attention. Ever since it was established that the earth (and Sun) were not the center of existance, man has wondered about what is past the observable bounds of the Universe. As astronomical equipment becomes bigger and better, man has been able to peer further and further out in space and still does not see an end. So, it is left up to speculation and theory to try to deduce the real nature of our existance.

The current theory is that 15 to 20 billion years ago, a tremendous explosion occurred in space (Big Bang Theory) and matter has been flying away from all other matter with increasing speed ever since. The current concept also considers that space is infinite (open) and that the matter will continue to increase its speed forever (expanding Universe). Other theories are concerned with either modifications of this theory or alternate theories that treat the composition of the Universe as static as opposed to expanding or closed (finite extents) as opposed to open.

The current theory has evolved from observations by Slipher in 1917 that distant Nebula were receding from our Galaxy at speeds as high as 1800 km/sec. This was determined by observing the frequency of radiation from these Nebula and comparing them to equivelant local radiations. It was determined that the radiation was shifted toward the red end of the spectrum. The consensus was that the shift was due to Doppler shift and that, because of the direction of the shift, the Spiral Nebula were receding. The non-relativistic velocity due to Doppler shift in free space is given as:

In 1929, Hubble proposed a simple formula for expansion of all matter in the Universe:

The Hubble constant has been constantly revised and is currently 50 km/sec/Mpc = 5×10^6 cm/sec/Mpc = (1.62116×10^18)/to

There are obvious difficulties wit the expanding Universe theory as well as many others. The first difficulty is in the acceptance of an open model where matter continues to increase speed the further it gets from other matter. What happens when the speed equals the speed of light. Does the matter disappear, slow down and reverse direction or what. Eddington showed that matter placed in a DeSitter (flat) solution of Einstein's equation would expand. But Einstein also showed that a curvature was required in order to account for gravity. Do these two requirements conflict?

Another reason can be given for the Red Shift which has nothing to do with Doppler shift. The distance D can be equated to time by:

Eliminating v from the above equations and substituting for D produced:


This says that the fractional change in wavelength versus time is a constant. Velocity does not enter into the equation normally. Therefore, any function that changes with time can result in the Red Shift.


In the section on gravity, it was determined that


In accordance with the S-S concept, the dimensions of q are L3/T and dq represents the total differential sink rate of an electron-proton pair. dq×t represents the total differential volume of space that has been sinked during time t.

In the same fashion, qo×to represents the volume of space sourced or sinked by an electron or proton in a one second time interval since to represents the basic time base used which is 1 sec in the cgs system.

Assume that dL is proportional to the total differential volume of space sinked in time t and L is proportional to the total volume of spaced sourced by an electron (or sinked by a proton) in a one second time interval, then:

It will be noticed that the ratio of KL to Kg is 5.6958. This is actually a close correllation considering that the Hubble constant has gone through several revisions from 550 to 50 km/sec/Mpc. Several reasons may account for the varience including (but not limited to):

  1. The Hubble constant may still be in error due to the accuracy of procedures used to obtain it.
  2. The value of Kg may be in error do to an omission in the equation. i.e. the actual equation may be:

It must be pointed out that the wavelength shift versus time will probably never be able to be tested locally since the parameters of the measuring equipment change at the same rate as the parameters of the effect being observed. It takes a sufficient time difference in the measurement to be able to provide an observable result. Stellar distances provide such a test.

It also needs to be pointed out that the above is predicated on the assumption that dq is a constant versus time. This is probably not true. It should be expected that dq will probably be non-linear over great periods of time since it will depend upon the value of qo which should vary with time as the physical size of the electron and neutron varies with time.

It has been shown that the Red Shift can be caused by other factors than Doppler shift. It is proposed that there is a tie in between gravity and the Red Shift. That is, both gravity and the Red Shift are caused by a small difference in the source and sink rates of space by the protons and electrons.

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